Solution Exchange Knowledge products on Water and Environment

By Pankaj Shrivastav, Resource Person, Water Community – Jun 2006 to Sep 2007

A. Clean Technologies

A.1. Low-cost technology for treating sullage in special soils, from Vijaya Saradhi Atluri, Byrraju Foundation, Hyderabad. Issued 27 June 2006.

Provides technological options to treat sullage for rural communities & specifically for black cotton soil. highlighting contextual specifications when selecting an appropriate sullage treatment design

A.2. Comparative Analysis of Biogas Digester Models, from Sheldon Mendon, WOTR, Ahmednagar. Issued 18 July 2006

Provides experiences in working with different biogas models, criteria for evaluating models and dos and don’ts while implementing biogas programs

A.3. Details of Biofuel Operations, from Ravi Prasad Garimella,  BalajiIndustrial & Agricultural Castings, Hyderabad. Issued 16 November 2006. Cross Posted with Food and Nutrition Security Community.

Discusses alternate energy options through large-scale bio fuel production in India, covering biofuel sources, jatropha and other alternatives, bio fuel programmes, policies and economic instruments

A.4. Watermill Based Energy for Enterprise Development, from B. M. Kandpal, SIMAR, Uttaranchal. Issued 30 December 2006

Provides experiences in upgrading watermills for power generation and setting up village enterprises, suggests enterprises to be taken up and possible funding sources for such projects

A.5.Biofuel Plantation through Community Groups– From Rishu Garg, Association for Rural Advancement through Voluntary Action and Local Involvement (ARAVALI), Jaipur

Cross posted with Food and Nutrition Security Community. Issued 27 August 2007

Recommends plant species for biofuel plantations, raises key issues and suggests strategies to address concerns pertaining to biofuel promotion in India

A.6.Use of Human Excreta for Agriculture  – From Nivedita Varshneya, German Agro Action/Deutsche Welthungerhilfe(DWHH/GAA), New Delhi. Cross-posted with Food and Nutrition Security Community. Issued 30 September 2007.

Outlines ongoing practices and emerging technologies using human excreta for agriculture, outlines risks and precautions in handling such waste and suggests mechanisms for its use

B. Water Supply and Sanitation

B.1. Sanitation Programme for AnganwadiCentres, Meeta Jaruhar, from Department of Drinking Water & Sanitation, Jharkhand.Issued 21 September 2006

Provides inputs for designing child-friendly toilets for Anganwadi Centres (AWCs), experiences in evolving toilet designs, plan parameters and some designs developed in other parts of the country.

B.2. Conservancy Staff and Municipal Sanitation, from AparnaDas, UNDP, New Delhi. Cross-posted with Decentralization Community. Issued 14 February 2007.

Discusses issues of socio-economic and health status of conservancy workers, provides suggestions for integrating their concerns into national policies and also analyses revenue models of waste collection

B.3. Handbook on Innovations in Watsan, from Chicu Lokgariwar, Gomukh Environmental Trust.Issued 28 February 2007.

Highlights a range of personal and organizational experiences and technologies for the handbook categorised as technologies, institutional and economic innovations

B.4. Role of Children in Spreading Water and Sanitation Awareness, from Gyanendra Mishra, UDAAN, Aligarh. Cross Posted with Education Community. Issued 14 May 2007

Provides experiences from across the country as well as tools and techniques in involving children in spreading water and sanitation (watsan) awareness

B.5. Making Rural Sanitary Marts viable and more effective – From Ajit Saxena, UNDP, New Delhi. Issued 26 May 2007

The discussion brought out learnings in setting up and running RSMs from different parts of the country and gave suggestions to improve the functioning and sustainability of these systems

B.6. Best Practices in Effective Sewage Disposal – From Aniruddhe Mukerjee, Government of Madhya Pradesh, Bhopal. Issued on 13 June 2007.

Outlines various technical options and good practices from different parts of India and gives suggestions for designing institutional interventions for effective sewage management

B.7.Role of Improved Sanitation in Economic Growth – From Priyam Das, the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA)/WaterAid, California, USA. Issued on 29 June 2007

Experiences demonstrating economic benefits of investments in sanitation services, by creating livelihood opportunities/positive health outcomes, and suggests ways of sustaining investments

B.8.Management of Water and Sanitation during Disasters – From V.R.Raghavan, Oxfam GB, Kolkata. Cross Posted with DRM Community. Issued on 13 June 2007.

Explores solutions and experiences to sustain and manage water sources, mechanisms for excreta disposal, the issue of WATSAN and public health and hygiene during disasters.

B.9. Nirmal Gram Puraskar–From Indira Khurana, WaterAid India, New Delhi

Issued on 30 June 2007. Cross-posted with Decentralization Community.

Shares experiences of members with regard to the NGP, analyzing triggers and barriers in accomplishing results and provides myriad suggestions to enhance the process

B.10.Ecological Sanitation – From S. Janakarajan, Madras Institute of Development Studies (MIDS), Chennai.Issued 30 June 2007

Details members’ experiences in the promotion of ecosanacross India, sharing their understanding, analysis of current problems and suggestions for scaling up the same

B.11.Studies and Indicators on Health Impact of Improved Sanitation – From Benny George, Department of Drinking Water Supply, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India, New Delhi. Issued 31 August 2007

Outlines the approach for impacting health outcomes through improved sanitation, suggests indicators for the same, and provides diverse studies on the issue

B.12.WatSan Services for PLHIV – From Brijmohan Kandpal, SIMAR, Uttaranchal

Cross-posted with AIDS Community. Issued 17 September 2007

Shares experiences and provides suggestions, case studies and references from members  related to the importance and design of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene services for PLHIV

C. Water Quality

C.1. Community-Based Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance, from Ross Nickson, UNICEF, Kolkata. Issued 12 October 2006

Presents examples and learnings from initiatives in water quality monitoring (WQM) from across the country on whether community-based WQM can improve drinking water quality via community action

C.2. Removing Fluoride Contamination, from SPWD, Udaipur. Issued 13 December 2006

Discusses treatment techniques for fluoride-contaminated water citing members’ experiences in resolving the fluoride contamination issue in other parts of India.

C.3.Resources on Management of Risks in Water Quality – From Nick Pilgrim, Water and Sanitation Program – South Asia (WSP-SA), New Delhi. Issued 30 June 2007

Experiences and technologies developed from India and Pakistan, highlighting the need to address some basic issues while designing focused water quality interventions in the region

C.4.Pipeline Damage and Chlorine Spillage- Assessment and Handling  –From Swati Mitra, GOI- UNDP’ Disaster Risk Management Programme, National Institute of Disaster Management, New Delhi. Cross-posted with DRM Community. Issued 28 September 2007

Suggestions for detecting leaks post-disaster and designing responses to chlorine spillages in water treatment facilities, and discusses technologies for assessing damage to water pipelines

D. Water Resource Management

D.1. Roof water harvesting in urban areas for groundwater recharge, from Mihir Maitra, ICEF, New Delhi.Issued 22 August 2006.

Discusses the challenges, and available mechanisms/systems through various experiences of RRWH

D.2. Water Budgeting by Communities, from Ravi Niwash, UNV, Jharkhand . Issued 7 November 2006

Presents members’ advice on the process that could prepare communities to take up water budgeting for better management of water resources, covering issues, suggestions and experiences

D.3.Impact of Mining on Water Availability and Quality –From Pramel Gupta, Bhopal Rehabilitation, Bhopal.Issued 2 August 2007

Insights on adverse effects of mining on water availability and quality from across states and explains contextual complexities and the measures that could be adopted to address the issue

D.4.Design of Training for Women on Creating Water Networks – From Ahmed Fahmi, UNESCO, New Delhi.Issued 7 August 2007

Suggestions on approach for designing course content and methodology of training, emphasizing its importance and highlights participatory, experiential learning methodologies for women

E. Water for Food Production

E.1. Gender Equity in Participatory Irrigation Management, from M.S. Prakash, DHV-MDP, New Delhi. Cross-posted with Gender Community. Issued 28 July 2006.

Deliberates on legal, political, socio-cultural& capacity building constraints preventing women from being members of Water Users’ Associations (WUAs), exercising voting rights & contesting elections

E.2. Regenerating Traditional Irrigation Systems, from Sarbeswara Sahoo, Kalpataru, Orissa. Issued 22 December 2006

Analyses the nuances involved in the relevance and regeneration of traditional irrigation systems, and the strengths and weaknesses of traditional irrigation systems vis-à-vis modern irrigation systems

E.3. Impact of Industrial Pollution of Ground Water on Agriculture, from Saugat Ganguly, Gamana, Hyderabad.Cross-posted with Food & Nutrition Security Community.Issued on 23 April 2004.

Experiences of environmental and social impacts of industrial effluents on groundwater and agricultural production is discussed with technical, legal and social mitigation measures

E.4. Setting Norms for and Treating Polluted Irrigation Water, from AbhayKumar, Toxics Link, New Delhi (Experiences; Advice). Cross-posted with Food & Nutrition Security Community. Issued 29 March 2007.

Discusses various treatment techniques and suggests possible institutional and other interventions to address the problem of setting norms for and treating polluted irrigation water

F. Water Governance

F.1. The Issue of Convergence in WES Programmes, from Bhawna Vajpai, Water and Sanitation Consultant, New Delhi. Issued 28 June 2006.

Identifies major barriers to convergence, emphasizing role of communities and their institutions in operationalizing it at grassroots, providing experiences and suggestions to ensure better convergence

F.2. Reward mechanisms promoting successful urban WES projects, from Sharadbala Joshi, WEDC, UK. Issued 5 July 2006.

Discusses how reward mechanisms in urban areas could help promotion and dissemination of good experiences; also deliberates on the social acceptability of awards in this context.

F.3. UN interventions in the WES Sector, from Preeti Soni, UNDP, New Delhi (Advice). Issued 24 July 2006

Compiles advice from the community on strategic appropriateness of key focus areas of the proposed programmes in water resource management and environmental sanitation pertaining to the UNDAF

F.4. For Comments on Rajasthan Draft Water Policy, from Prema Gera, UNDP, New Delhi. Issued 31 August 2006.

Provides comments on Draft Water Policy, identifies gaps, reflects on problems, and represents views and aspirations of all water users drawing from members experiences

F.5. Improving water and sanitation governance by PRIs, from V. Kurian Baby, SEUF, Kerala . Issued 8 September 2006.Cross-posted with Decentralization Community.

Presents examples of Panchayat-basedwatsan schemes, factors preventing PRIs effective watsangovernance, and also identifies capacity-building topics for PRIs

F.6.Relevance of Public Interest Litigations for Conflict Resolution in Water Sector, from Arati Davis, Svaraj, Bangalore. Issued 14 September 2006

Provides examples of PILs which have resulted in tangible benefits; experiences on the use of PIL for resolving water related conflicts and key learnings that have emerged.

F.7. Mechanisms for Protection of Local Community’s Intellectual Property Rights, from Ruchi Pant, UNDP, New Delhi. Cross posted with Food and Nutrition Security Community. Issued 12 January 2007.

Cites experiences in setting up models to protect the Intellectual Property Rights and facilitate benefit –sharing arrangements of communities over their traditional knowledge.

F.8. Draft Report of the SubGroup IV on NRM during XI Plan, from N.K. Sanghi, Planning Commission, New Delhi. Issued 31 January 2007

Comments on TORs focusing on user rights, economic incentives,& involvement of gram  panchayats, suggesting programs coverage & fund requirements for NRM under XI Plan

F.9. Status of Environment Education in the School Curriculum, from LivleenKahlon, TERI, New Delhi. Cross-posted with Education Community. Issued 28 February 2007.

Provides experiences, difficulties encountered when integrating EE as a subject, and offers suggestions to make EE a more joyful, inclusive and meaningful learning experience for children

F.10. Best Practices on Water Demand Management in Cities, from AniruddheMukherjee, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, Bhopal. Issued 29 March 2007.

Gives members’ inputs members to design and implement water demand management interventions, providing general principles, aspects outlining technical, economic and institutional issues of the same.

F.11. Waste Management at Tourism Sites, from R. K. Anil, Endogenous Tourism, UNDP, New Delhi. Issued 31 March 2007.

Provides experiences in designing, and implementing waste management programmes in tourism sites, also providing broad application strategies based on the experience of several successful case studies.

F.12. Role of Panchayats in De-Fluoridation of Drinking Water, from Venkatrao Ghorpade, SHIRDI Foundation, BangaloreIssued 17 April 2007. Cross-posted with Decentralization Community.

Contains experiences to develop models where Panchayats could deliver fluoride-free water to its constituents, also suggesting various technical and institutional mitigation mechanisms to tackle the issue.

F.13. Films on Water Related Issues, from Nitya Jacob, Writeshop InfotechPrivate Limited, New Delhi. Issued 18 April 2007.

Recommends national and international films on a range of themes for  developing a compendium of films to spread awareness on water related issues and increase water literacy among various stakeholders

F.14.Revolving Fund for Household WatSan Facilities – From Kulwant Singh, UN-HABITAT, New Delhi

Cross-posted with Microfinance Community. Issued 27 September 2007

Experiences and examples of models from different states in financing small household level water and sanitation facilities through revolving funds, along with design element suggestions